Scientific Research

The scientific research on the Transcendental Meditation program is the largest and strongest body of research in the world on any program to develop human potential, with more than 600 scientific studies conducted at 250 independent universities and institutions in 33 countries. These studies have been published in over 100 of the world's leading scientific journals and are proving benefits in every aspect of life.

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Higher Levels of Brain Functioning

Arenander A. and Travis F.T. Brain patterns of Self-awareness. In B Beitman and J Nair, Eds. Self-Awareness Deficits. New York: W.W.Norton, 2004.

Badawi K., et al.. Electrophysiologic characteristics of respiratory suspension periods occurring during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation program. Psychosomatic Medicine 46(3): 267–276, 1984.

Banquet J.P. and Lesevre N. Event-related potentials in altered states of consciousness: Motivation, motor and sensory processes of the brain. Progress in Brain Research 54: 447-453, 1980.

Bennett J.E. and Trinder J. Hemispheric laterality and cognitive style associated with Transcendental Meditation. Psychophysiology 14: 293-296, 1977.

Dillbeck M. C. and Bronson E. C. Short-term longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on EEG power and coherence. International Journal of Neuroscience 14: 147–151, 1981.

Dillbec M. C., et al. Frontal EEG coherence, H-reflex recovery, concept learning, and the TM-Sidhi program. International Journal of Neuroscience 15: 151–157, 1981.

Gallois P. Modifications neurophysiologiques et respiratoires lors de la pratique des techniques de relaxation. L'Encéphale 10: 139-144, 1984.

Goddard P.H. Reduced age-related declines of P300 latency in elderly practicing Transcendental Meditation. Psychophysiology 26: 529, 1989.

Hebert R., et al. Enhanced EEG alpha time-domain phase synchrony during Transcendental Meditation: Implications for cortical integration theory. Signal Processing, 85(11): 2213-2232, 2005.

Lyubimov N.N. Electrophysiological characteristics of mobilization of hidden brain reserves. Abstracts, the International Symposium "Physiological and Biochemical Basis of Brain Activity" (St. Petersburg, Russia: Russian Academy of Science, Institute of the Human Brain): 5, 1994.

Mason L. I., et al. Electrophysiological correlates of higher states of consciousness during sleep in long-term practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation program. Sleep 20 (2): 102-110, 1997.

McEvoy T.M., et al. Effects of meditation on brainstem auditory evoked potentials. International Journal of Neuroscience 10: 165-170, 1980.

Nidich S.I., et al. Kohlbergian cosmic perspective responses, EEG coherence, and the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Journal of Moral Education 12: 166-173, 1983.

Orme-Johnson D.W. and Haynes C.T. EEG phase coherence, pure consciousness, creativity, and TM-Sidhi experiences. International Journal of Neuroscience 13: 211–217, 1981.

Orme-Johnson D.W. and Gelderloos P. Topographic EEG brain mapping during Yogic Flying. International Journal of Neuroscience 38: 427-434, 1988.

Travis F. Eyes open and TM EEG patterns after one and after eight years of TM practice. Psychophysiology 28 (3a): S58, 1991.

Travis F. and Miskov S. P300 latency and amplitude during eyes-closed rest and Transcendental Meditation practice. Psychophysiology 31: S67 (Abstract), 1994.

Travis F. Patterns of EEG coherence, power, and contingent negative variation characterize the integration of transcendental and waking states. Biological Psychology 61: 293-319, 2002.

Travis F. T. and Orme-Johnson D. W. EEG coherence and power during yogic flying. International Journal of Neuroscience 54: 1–12, 1990.

Wallace R.K., et al. Modification of the paired H reflex through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Experimental Neurology 79: 77-86, 1983.

Wallace R. K., et al. Modification of the paired H reflex through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Experimental Neurology 79: 77–86, 1983.

Yamamoto S., et al. Medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulated cortex in the generation of alpha activity induced by Transcendental Meditation: A magnetoencephalographic study. Acta Medica Okayama, 60(1): 51-58, 2006